College of Veterinary Medicine

People in WSU Veterinary Medicine

Lawrence K. Fox 

Lawrence K. Fox Lawrence K. Fox MS, PhD 
Field Disease Investigation Unit

Research Interests

Our research efforts are designed to examine new methods of control of contagious mastitis. These efforts are principally directed at control of Staphylococcus aureus andMycoplasma sp. mastitis. Our focus is directed at the development and validation of strategies to control this disease through applied and basic research. 

Currently we are utilizing biotechnologies to Fingerprint S. aureus and Mycoplasma sp., the most prevalent contagious mastitis pathogens, to determine reservoirs and  fomites of infection. We also have projects designed to examine the role S. aureus exotoxins have as superantigens in mastitis, and their affect on milk quality. We are applying similar technologies in an effort to control Mycoplasma sp. mastitis. 

  • Control of contagious mastitis in cows and heifers.
  • Control of mastitis on organic dairy farms
  • Exotoxins in milk: affects on milk quality and mammary immunity.
  • Determination of reservoirs of Mycoplasma sp. that cause mastitis.

Publications (last 5 years)

  • Punyapornwithaya, V., L.K. Fox, J.M. Gay, D.D. Hancock, and J.R. Alldredge. 2009.  The effect of centrifugation and resuspension on the recovery of Myscoplasma species from milk. J. Dairy. Sci. 92:4444-4447.
  • Adhikari B., Besser T.E., Gay J.M., Fox L.K., Davis M.A., Cobbold R.N., Berge A.C., Hancock D.D.2009. Introduction of new multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica strains into commercial dairy herds. J. Dairy Sci.92:4229-4238.
  • Adhikari B, Besser T.E., Gay J.M., Fox L.K., Davis M.A., Cobbold R.N., Berge A.C.,McClanahan R, Hancock D.D.2009.The role of animal movement, including off-farm rearing of heifers, in the interherd transmission of multidrug-resistant Salmonell. J. Dairy. Sci. 92:4218-4228.
  • Fox, L.K. 2009. Prevalence, incidence and risk factors of heifer mastitis. Vet. Micro. 134:82-88.
  • Andrew, S.M., K.M. Moyes, A.A. Borm, L.K. Fox, K.E. Leslie, J.S. Hogan, S.P. Oliver, Y.H. Schukken, W.E. Owens, and C. Norman. 2009.  Factors associated with the risk of antibiotic residues and intramammary pathogen presence in milk fro heifers administered prepartum intramammary antibiotic therapy. Vet. Micro. 134:150-6.
  • Seo, K.S., J.Y. Park, W.C. Davis, L.K. Fox, M.A. McGuire, Y.H. Park, G.A. Bohach. 2009. Superantigen-mediated differentiation of bovine monocytes into dendritic cells. J. Leukoc. Bio. 85:606-16
  • Fox, L.K., F.J. Muller, M.L. Wedam, C.S. Schneider, and M.K. Biddle. 2008. Clinical Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in prepubertal heifers on 2 dairy herds.  Can. Vet. J. 49:1110-1112.
  • Church, G.T., L.K. Fox, C.T. Gaskins, D. D. Hancock, and J.M. Gay. 2008.  The effect of a shortened dry period on intramammary infections during the subsequent lactation.  J. Dairy Sci. 91: 4219:4225.
  • Keun Seok Seo, Sang Un Lee, Yong Ho Park, W. C. Davis, Lawrence K. Fox, and Gregory A. Bohach.  2007. Long-Term Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C1 Exposure Induces Soluble Factor-Mediated Immunosuppression by Bovine CD4 and CD8 T Cells. Infection and Immunity, 75:260–269.
  • Park YH, SU Lee, WA Ferens, S Samuels, WC Davis, LK Fox, JS Ahn, KS Seo, BS Chang, SY Hwang, and GA Bohach (2006) Unique features of bovine lymphocytes exposed to a staphylococcal superantigen. Journal of Veterinary Science 7:233-239
  • Fox, L. K., C. Gradle, and A. Dee. 2006.  Disinfectant containing a complex of skin conditioners. J. Dairy Sci. 89:2539-2541.
  • Borm, A. A., L. K. Fox, K. E. Leslie, J. S. Hogan, S. M. Andrew, K. M. Moyes, S. P. Oliver, Y. H. Schukken, D. D. Hancock, C. T. Gaskins, W.E. Owens, and C. Norman.  2006.  Effects of prepartum intramammary antibiotic therapy on udder health.  J. Dairy Sc,i. 89:2090-2098.
  • Fox, L.K., R.N. Zadoks and C.T. Gaskins. 2005. Biofilm production by Staphylococcus aureus associated with intramammary infection.Vet Micro. 107: 295-299.
  • Griffin,  K.B. J. J. Michal, L. K. Fox, C. T. Gaskins, and Z. Jiang. 2005.  Fine mapping of the bovine chromosome 22q24 region that harbours antimicrobial genes and a QTL for somatic cell score.  Animal Genetics. 36:448-451
  • Smith, E. M., L.E. Green, G.F. Medley, H.E. Bird, L. K. Fox, Y. H. Schukken, J. V. Kruze,  A. J. Bradley, R. N. Zadoks, and C. G. Dowson.   2005.   Multilocus sequence typing of intercontineatal bovine staphylococcus aureus isolates.  J. Clin. Micro 43: 4737-4743.
  • Chang, S. B., G. A. Bohach, S.U. Lee, W.C. Davis, L.K.  Fox, W.A. Ferens, K.S. Seo, H. C. Koo, M.H Kwon, Y.H. Park.  2005.  Immunosuppression by T regulatory celss in cows infected with Staphylococcal superantigen.  J. Veterinary Science.  6:247-250
  • Fox, L.K., J.H. Kirk, and A. Britten. 2005.  Mycoplasma mastitis: A review of transmission and control.  J. Vet. Med. 52:153-160.
  • Biddle, M. K., L. K. Fox, M. A. Evans, and C. C. Gay. 2005.  Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of Mycoplasma isolates from various body sites in dairy cattle with Mycoplasma mastitis. JAVMA 227:445-459.
  • Zecconi, A., R. Piccinini, and L.K. Fox. 2004.  Epidemiologic study of non-contagious intramammary infections in nine commercial dairy herds following a Staphylococcus aureus control program.  J. Vet Med. B 51:333-336
  • Biddle, M.K.,  L. K. Fox, D. D. Hancock, C. T. Gaskins, and M. A. Evans Effects of Storage Time and Thawing Methods on the Recovery of Mycoplasma Species in Milk Samples from Cows with Intramammary Infections
    J. Dairy Sci. 2004 87: 933-936.
  • Zecconi, A., R. Piccinini, and L. K. Fox. 2003.  Epidemiologic study of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus during a control program in nine commercial dairy herds.  JAVMA. 223: 684-688.
  • Fox, L.K., L.Y. Oura, and C.R. Ames. 2003. Teat Skin pH.  J. Dairy Sci.  86:3951:3952
  • Silk, A.S., L. K. Fox, and D. D. Hancock. 2003.  Removal of hair surrounding the teat and associated bacterial counts on teat skin surface, in milk, and intramammary infections.  J. Vet. Med. B. 50:1-4.
  • Joo, Y.S., J. S. Moon, L.K. Fox, G.H. Suh, N. H. Kwon, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Park.  2003. Comparison of natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP-1) expression between cows with high and low milk somatic cells counts. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1830-1836.
  • Biddle, Mary K , Larry K. Fox, and Dale D. Hancock  2003.  Patterns of mycoplasma shedding in the milk of dairy cows with intramammary mycoplasma infection. JAVMA 223:1163-1166
  • Fox, L.K., G. A. Bohach, S. U. Lee, K.T. Park, and Y.H. Park.  2003.  Mastitis: Effect on milk quality, causative agents and control.  Kor. J. Vet. Publ Health.  27:69-76.
  • Lee, S. U., Y. H. Park, W. C. Davis, L. K. Fox, and G. A. Bohach. 2003.  The properties of human and bovine CD8+CD26+ T Cells induced by a microbial superantigen.  Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 524:1-4.
  • Fox, LK, Hancock, DD, Mickelson, A, and A. Britten. 2003. Bulk tank milk analysis:Factors associated with appearance of Mycoplasma sp in milk. J. Vet. Med B 50:235-240
  • Middleton JR, Hebert VR, Fox LK, Tomaszewska E, Lakritz J.  2003.  Elimination kinetics of chlorhexidine in milk following intramammary infusion to stop lactation in mastitic mammary gland quarters of cows.  J Am Vet Med Assoc.  222(12): 1746-1749
  • Hebert V.R., J.R. Middleton, E. Tomaszewska, and L.K. Fox. 2003.  Methodology for quantifying residues of chlorhexidine in raw dairy milk. J. Ag. and Food Chem. 51:567-570.
  • Lee, SU, YH Park, WC Davis, MJ Hamilton, J Naessens, and GA Bohach (2002) Molecular characterization of bovine CD26 upregulated by staphylococcal superantigen. Immunogenetics 54:216-220.
  • R. N. Zadoks, W. B. van Leeuwen, D. Kreft, L. K. Fox, H. W. Barkema, Y. H. Schukken, and A. van Belkum.  2002.  Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine and human dkin, milking rquipment, and bovine milk by phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and binary typing.  J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:3894-3902.
  • Middleton J.R., L.K. Fox, J.M. Gay, J.W. Tyler, and T.E. Besser.  2002.  Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for detecting differences in Staphylococcus aureus strain populations between dairy herds with different cattle importation practices.  Epidemiol. Infect. 129:387-395.
  • Middleton J.R., and L.K. Fox.  2002.  Influence of Staphylococcus aureus strain on mammary quarter milk production.  Vet Rec. 150(13):411-412.
  • Middleton J.R., L.K.Fox, J.M. Gay, J.W. Tyler, and T.E. Besser. 2002. Influence of Staphylococcus aureus strain-type onmammary quarter milk somatic cell count and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity in cattle from eight dairies. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1133-40.
  • Oura, L.Y., L.K. Fox, C.C. Warf, and G. K. Kemp. 2002.  Efficacy of two acidified chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid on prevention of contagious mastitis using an experimental challenge protocol.  J. Dairy Sci. 85:252-257.
  • Lee, S.U., W. Ferens, W. C. Davis, M.J. Hamilton, Y.H. Park, L.K. Fox, J. Naessens, and G. A. Bohach.  2001.  Identity of activation milecule 3 on superantigen-stimulated bovine cells is CD 26.  Infect. Immun. 66573-580.
  • Middleton J.R., L.K. Fox, and T.H. Smith.  2001. Management strategies to decrease the prevalence of mastitis caused by one strain of Staphylococcus aureus in a dairy herd.  JAVMA.  218:1615-1618
  • Middleton, J. R., and L. K. Fox. 2001.  Therapeutic cessation of lactation of Staphylococcus asureus-infected mammary quarters.  J. Dairy Sci., 84:1976-1978
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